Samples from the main part of the cloth, unlike the carbon 14 sample area, did not contain any vanillin. After a lengthy peer review process, his findings that the carbon dating was wholly invalid were published in the scientific journal Rogers' published work showing that the carbon dating is invalid has been confirmed by John L Brown, a forensic materials specialist at Georgia Tech in Atlanta, Georgia and by Robert Villarreal and a team of nine scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico.
If the shroud was only as old as the radiocarbon date, it would have plentiful vanillin.
The Shroud has attracted widespread interest ever since Secondo Pia took the first photograph of it in 1898: about whether it is Jesus' purported burial cloth, how old it might be, and how the image was created.
He concluded that the sample used for carbon dating was not representative of the cloth. Moreover, one of the chemical differences, the amount of vanillin, provided a new clue about the cloth’s age.However, although the locations of the samples sent to the three laboratories involved are known, the locations of the 12 subsamples within these samples are not.We consider all 387,072 plausible spatial allocations and analyse the resulting distributions of statistics.Now Carpinteri's team, through mechanical and chemical experimentation, hypothesizes that high-frequency pressure waves generated in the Earth's crust during earthquakes are the source of such neutron emissions.This is based on their research into piezonuclear fission reactions, which are triggered when very brittle rock specimens are crushed under a press machine.